Past Perfect Verb – lesson 8


What is the Past Perfect Verb?  

This verb looks at a time which is in the past and before the current time.  It is used to show an event which took place in the past and happened before a further event in the past.  It looks at both events.  There is no rule about which event came first.  It can be seen from the verb in the text which event came first and which came second.   This verb uses: had and the past participle of the main verb.   For example: the past tense of have is: had and add to this a past verb.

Examples of past verbs: asked / arrived / finished / decided / spoke / given / heard

I had asked / I had given / they had given / I hadn’t given (I had not given) / we had given / had you given? / had they asked? /

Past verb + just:  If you want to you can use just to talk about something that has happened very recently before the present time.  For example:

He had just put the washing out when the wind blew it all away



Lesson 8 

Theme for the lesson: Global Goal 10 – Reduced Inequalities



Vocabulary for the lesson: 

Inequality: this is where people are considered to be different because of their status, wealth or opportunity (noun)

Rural: outside of the city. Countryside (adjective)

Urban: city life.  Not the countryside (adjective)

Disability: when somebody has a physical or mental illness or injury (noun)

Discriminate: to recognise difference between two people or things (verb)

Invest: to put money into something that will offer an increase in return (verb)

Policy: a plan or rule to show how things need to be done (noun)

Seek: to look for something (verb).  Past verb is sought



Please read one or two paragraphs from this story:


This is a short story about how the consequences of inequality can be terrible for human life and the future development of the planet.

Inequality has been a part of the world’s thinking and economic and social strategy for a long period of time.   In the future, at some stage hopefully it could still be overcome.   It has existed mainly because of an economic and social need which hadn’t thought about justice as a part of that need.  If it had thought about the consequences then less people would have suffered.

Inequality includes several forms of injustice which still continue in today’s world namely, race, disability, ethnicity, religion, income, gender and age.  It seems that where there is a reduction of inequality particularly less poverty there is an equal increase in economic and communal well being.  This well being is necessary for communities to be in a better position to face a world where environmental changes such as global warming and pollution are becoming the norm.  The conclusion here is that inequality is something that needs to be addressed in a more urgent way so that people in every nation and in every situation are considered equal and also have the same access to education, health services and available opportunities within the community.

One terrible statistic is that 16,000 children die each day due to diseases such as measles and tuberculosis.  In other words, yesterday 16,000 children had died despite health services generally becoming better equipped and easier to access in some countries.

In conclusion, where there is inequality there needs to be new policies and investment so that the suffering from the past does not continue into the present.


The above story summarises facts from two articles on the United Nations Global Goals development website for Global Goal 10 – Reduced Inequalities and Reduced Inequalities – Why it Matters   Photo: the main photograph (featured image) at the beginning of the lesson was taken by: Raymond Van Neste 6955422_preview Amazing Swan in the Park. 2010.


Final task:

Look again at basic verbs ending with ed: examples: suffered / asked / arrived.  Then with your friends see if you can create some past sentences.  For example: I had asked / I hadn’t asked.  Or, if you are a beginner try to learn the meaning of had (past tense of have) as well as some past verbs such as: Spoke / given / heard / asked.  Try to learn the verbs (past perfect verbs) in the context of the story.  


End of Lesson


Next lesson: 

The next lesson (lesson 9) will be on Saturday 8th February 2020.  The lesson will be on the Future Perfect Verb and the theme will be about Global Goal 5 – Gender Equality


Useful Links: 

UN Website – current news

Global Goal 5 – Gender Equality

Global Goal 5Why it Matters

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Information about the United Nations

What are the Sustainable Development Goals?

UN Sustainable Development Website: 17 Goals to Transform our World