Present Perfect Continuous Verb – lesson 10

What is the Present Perfect Continuous verb?

This verb looks at a time which is not specified in the past up until the current time.  This is something started in the past and not finished yet.  Or, it could also be started at some time in the past and is now finished.  The verb is the present perfect of the verb ‘to be’: have / has been + ing (main verb plus present participle: ing).

Example:  John has been eating my food (in other words John ate the food in the past and now there is no food to eat.  So, this action has come to an end.  However, it effects me now because I’m going to be hungry.  I’m still interested in the process even though the action has come to an end.

Example:  She’s been waiting for you all day (in other words she’s still waiting).

Example:  I haven’t been living at that place (negative).

Examples:  Have you been living? / Have they been living? / has she been living? (questions).

Contractions: haven’t: have not / hasn’t: has not

Note: for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘they’ you can use haven’t.  For a person’s name or ‘she’, ‘he’ ‘it’ (John, Mike, Sue, Sally) you can use: hasn’t.  Examples: she hasn’t / John hasn’t / it hasn’t / they haven’t / I haven’t


Lesson 10

Theme for the lesson: Global Goal 11Sustainable Cities and Communities


Vocabulary for the lesson:

Urban………in a city or town (adjective)

Pollution…harmful substances or waste which can cause damage to air / water (noun)

Emission…the amount of heat, carbon, light or gas which is sent out into the atmosphere (noun)

Consumption….the amount which is used or eaten (noun)

Potential…someone, something or a situation which can increase or achieve good things (adjective)




Please read the last two paragraphs of this story:


This story is about the enormous amount of people who inhabit our cities today despite huge challenges.

The global goal for cities and communities, global goal 11, is to work towards making cities more sustainable.  Its a fact that more than one half of the world’s population, 3.5 billion people live in cities.  By 2030, this number is expected to rise to 5 billion.  It’s also a fact that emissions from cities are around 70 per cent of all carbon emissions.

It’s necessary to work towards making sure that cities are safe and inclusive.   It’s important to enable people to live in a safe way which is free from poverty, inequality and disease.   On the Global Goals website it says that in the recent past in cities over 1 billion people have been living in slums.  Another way to describe this is to say that this same 1 billion people haven’t been living in luxury.

It can be said that cities are amazing places for people to live.   They are inhabited by many different people which are inclusive of every ethnicity, religion, culture and class.  At the same time they offer amazing opportunities for learning and consequently for the economy which in turn leads to the well-being of the inhabitants and a promising future.

However, from another perspective, there is gloom and doom in terms of things such as terrible air pollution, inequality, hunger, poverty, lack of suitable housing and jobs as well as poor health services.  For example in many cities around Europe it seems that the situation hasn’t been improving.  Homelessness and the lack of investment in housing is witness to this.  A severe lack of all kinds of necessary things has been the norm.  For example, an adequate system which maintains its transport system has been diminishing.


References: The above story summarises facts from two articles on the United Nations Global Goals development website for Global Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities and Sustainable Cities: Why they Matter  


Final task:

If you are a beginner look again at basic verbs ending with ing  Examples: living / swimming / running / working.  Then with your friends see if you can create some simple sentences with: has been / have been.  Try to learn the use of the verbs in the context of the story.  If you are more advanced look at the note above and start to develop some longer sentences using has been or have been / hasn’t been / haven’t been / have you been? / has she been?


End of Lesson


Next lesson:

The next lesson (lesson 11) will be on Saturday 22nd February 2020.  The lesson will be on the Past Perfect Continuous Verb and the theme will be about Global Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being

Useful links: 

Global Goal 3 – Good Health and Well-being

Global Goal 3 – Good Health and Well-being: Why it Matters

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Information about the United Nations

What are the Sustainable Development Goals?